Motherboard Replacement - Appendix
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Motherboard Replacement - Appendix/ Glossary

This page is the Appendix to the Motherboard Replacement article

It is intended that this page should be kept open alongside the main article page so that the relevant notes can be read along side the main article.

HAL Hardware Abstraction Layer.

This piece of software within Windows helps it deal with different categories of motherboard. In the beginning there was the "Standard" PC, which needs the "Standard PC" HAL, and also specials for some Compaqs and SGIs.

For "Standard" motherboards which support multiprocessors the "MPS Multiprocessor PC" HAL was added. Then for ACPI motherboards the single processor "Advanced Configuration and Power Interface (ACPI) PC" HAL, and the corresponding "ACPI Multiprocessor PC" HAL was needed.

Nowadays (for a good half-decade) most people have the "Advanced Configuration and Power Interface (ACPI) PC" HAL. If you have a multiprocessor or multicore CPU you will have the "ACPI Multiprocessor PC" HAL.

To view the HAL type, expand the Computer entry in the Device Manager tree (access it from the Computer Management or "My Computer" / Properties).

Under Win2K you can change easily from an ACPI single processor to ACPI multiprocessor HAL, or vice versa. And similarly from a Standard single processor HAL to a multiprocessor one. But you can't change so easily between these "types", see MS KB Article ID 246236 for an explanation.

Changing HAL for a change in processor or core count Read about HAL to ensure you know what to select.

Update the repair info!

Expand "Computer" in the Device Manager, right-click the HAL shown, select properties and press "Update Driver..." on the Driver sheet. Follow the wizard and select the CORRECT HAL, a reboot is required.

ACPI Advanced Configuration and Power Interface

For the last few years computers have been better at configuration and  power management. This has required a motherboard and BIOS that supports it. In turn the ACPI HAL was required. See the HAL description to find out how to check what you have.

IDE For many years the main standard for the connection of hard disks in a PC. It has evolved up to the 133 standard, but is now being slowly pushed aside by SATA and SATA II drives. The other main alternative is the SCSI interface.

Every motherboard has one or two IDE connectors to support 2 or 4 IDE drives. And it is also possible to buy controller cards that also provide additional IDE connectors. And both types sometimes come with RAID support.

See also IDE Drivers

IDE Drivers Like display cards support the original 640x480 "VGA mode" for compatibility (ie Windows needs no special drivers, Windows has built-in support ("Standard Dual Channel PCI IDE Controller") for "vanilla" use of IDE controllers, as well as specific (better performing) drivers for certain IDE chipsets. So Windows can always access an on board IDE controller (when installed on a new PC), and afterwards can load better IDE drivers if needed. But it doesn't have support for the various RAID and controller card options, these have to be provided on a disk when first installing windows on a new PC.

If a motherboard is changed (not replaced with an identical one) the chances are that the IDE chipset will change, so any "chipset specific" drivers will no longer work, and Windows may display the "Bue Screen of Death" (BSOD) on startup (not always perhaps, information appreciated). However if the chipset drivers are previously uninstalled and replaced with the "Standard Dual Channel PCI IDE Controller" then Windows CAN boot, and the proper drivers will either be installed as part of automatic New Hardware detection, or manually instigated. See below for procedure for changing the driver.

Vista Specifications Vista (the renamed Longhorn, minus the horns it seems) and its "Aero Glass 3D" will use DirectX 9, or 10 depending what you read. Quite whether any boards yet support the full hardware requirement I'm not sure, but won't be buying one yet.

eWeek.com, Aug 05 - Will Your PC Run Windows Vista? "For Aero effects video graphics cards should support: DirectX 9 with an LDDM [Longhorn Display Driver Model] driver, 32 bpp [bits per pixel] color depth, and 64MB of graphics RAM."

(NB: It seems VERY unlikely that 64MB will be enough for a real use with multiple open windows.)

AMD M2 This is one of the new AMD CPU Socket types coming out in 2006 (some boards expected at CeBIT). It will support their Virtualisation enhancements as well as DDR2 memory
VMWARE Guest preparation I found that I couldn't restart the suspended guests  (under VMWARE 4.00) as they were

... virtual machine that use[s] floating point features that do not match the supported features on the real machine".

The suspended image had to be discarded and the guests restarted as if they had "crashed".

Also VMWARE previously reported that the processor had CPUID bits that it didn't recognise:

The processor in this machine returns a CPUID feature bit not understood by this version of the product",

but I think that doesn't matter.

When the guest was booted there was also the following message:

The CMOS of this virtual machine is incompatible with the current version of VMware Workstation.
A new CMOS with default values will be used instead.

After that it all seemed fine.

Update the repair information Use the supplied Windows Backup utility (Accessories/System Tools) and select "Repair". It says to put in a floppy disk, that is of course best, but if you check the checkbox "Also backup the registry to the repair directory.   " it will make that copy (in the repair directory) before it realises there is no floppy disk).
Boot From CD To boot from a CD you may need to enable CD drive booting in the BIOS and set the priority above that of the hard disk.
Save LAN Connector Setup Record the data from the TCP/IP properties dialog. One value you won't see is any MTU value, this often has to be set to make web-browsing work properly (a fragmentation issue), so will be needed for a new LAN Connector. If you have a utility to read this value use it. One way of doing recording all the information, although it is slightly cryptic, is to print out the whole registry entry details for the LAN connector. Without changing anything, browse the registry to

HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\System\CurrentControlSet\Services\Tcpip\Parameters\Interfaces

You will see a list of Keys with {XXXXXXXX- lots more) type names. To match one of these to our LAN connector you have to look through them and spot the details that match the LAN connector. Take note of any "MTU" value, ideally print out the whole thing.

Selecting the Standard IDE driver In the Device Manager, expand "IDE ATA/ATAPI controllers" and expect to see "Primary IDE Channel", "Secondary IDE Channel" and a chipset specific one like "VIA Bus MasterIDE Controller".

This specific one is the one to change; right-click it, select Properties. Then select Driver on the dialog tabs and press "Update Driver...". See the New Hardware Wizard, move to the page that allows you to select "Display a list of known Drivers for this device so I can choose a specific driver" and press Next. See a list including "Standard Dual Channel PCI IDE Controller"and select that one, proceed through the Wizard.  [It might be just as good to delete the driver by using the "Uninstall" option on the popup menu.]

Selecting the Standard VGA driver In the Device Manager, expand "Display Adapters" and expect to see  a board specific one for your card.

Right-click it, select Uninstall and follow the instructions.

Motherboard removal Traditionally the motherboard is held in with various bolts / screws. But different cases will have different methods designed to speed the job of system builders, but confuse the rest of us.
bulletSome replace some screws with snap-on plastic stands.
bulletSome have metal lugs with a slight "hook" at the top. The motherboard is held by a small metal plat under the card slots that is held by single lateral screw accessed from outside of the case. Once the screw is withdraw from the metal plate the motherboard unhooks from the lugs. (eg Alto 810 Tower)

And some will be even more ingenious.

IP Ghost and Ghost removal This error message will appear if you enter a fixed IP and the IP is "in use" by a "ghost" LAN connector.

The IP address XXX.XXX.XXX.XXX you have entered for this network adapter is already assigned to another adapter Name of adapter. Name of adapter is hidden from the network and Dial-up Connections folder because it is not physically in the computer or is a legacy adapter that is not working. If the same address is assigned to both adapters and they become active, only one of them will use this address. This may result in incorrect system configuration. Do you want to enter a different IP address for this adapter in the list of IP addresses in the advanced dialog box?

This is the reason for deleting ghost LAN adapters. The MS KB Article No 269155 describes it and how to remove (Uninstall) the ghost from the Device Manager.

General Ghost Removal from Device Manager See the note about LAN/IP Connector Ghost removal. When the Device Manager is run with "devmgr_show_nonpresent_devices=1" set (after the motherboard change) there will usually be quite a few "ghosts" shown (the greyed ones). The error text is

"This device is not present, is not working properly, or does not have all its drivers installed. (Code 24)

I found these duplicate ghosts for quite a few "common" devices, eg under Keyboards there was both a greyed (ghost) and ordinary entry for the same Keyboard name.

Quite what the best practice is for deleting them I'm not sure, at your own risk you could delete the following, I did:

bulletDisplay Adapter/Adapter Name - This was there because I hadn't Uninstalled it before the motherboard change. But when I uninstalled it after the change the uninstaller that ran uninstalled the active copy (and "Display Adapters" disappeared from the Device Manager completely). I reinstalled it again.
bulletDisk Drives/Drive Name (normally the alphanumeric id)
bulletModems/Modem Name
bulletHuman Interface Devices/Name
bulletMouse and Other Pointing Devices/PS/2 Compatible Mouse
bulletPorts/ECP Printer Port

The procedure is to select the GREYED driver (not the ordinary one), right-click it, and select Uninstall... and follow the instructions.

This  appendix and the article it applies to, is copyright (c) 2006 Camel Services Ltd. It may not be reproduced without permission.

 

2006 Camel Services Ltd. www.camel.co.uk